Solar energy is a free source of non-polluting renewable energy that is sustainable and totally inexhaustible. Most people are aware of photovoltaics (PV), and that solar panels can be used to generate electricity and produce hot water. Now experts have developed techniques to convert sunlight into “solar fuels.” The process involves exposing water molecules to sunlight to separate the hydrogen and oxygen atoms, and then combining the hydrogen with carbon dioxide to create liquid fuels. The generated hydrogen can also be condensed (under pressure at very low temperatures) into liquid hydrocarbon fuels (LH2), simple hydrogen gas, and metal hydride, or converted to methanol.
Another well-established technique is to combine hydrogen with nitrogen to make ammonia, which