Make jokes about pizza rats all you want, but the way cities affect animals’ genes could have serious implications for human health, according to a review paper published on Thursday in Science. Head lice, rats and cockroaches, the authors noted, have grown more genetically resistant to the chemicals that are supposed to kill them. Random mutations happen, too. Some of those things may increase the likelihood of new, random mutations or introduce new pressures on the animals that live in the area.

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