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You’re Only as Full as You Expect to Be

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) — How filling you think a meal will be can affect how much you eat later, a small study found. The research included 26 people who ate what they were told were two-egg and four-egg omelets on two different mornings. But both omelets contained three eggs. When people ate what they believed to be the smaller omelet, they said they were much hungrier after two hours, ate much more of a pasta lunch and consumed significantly more calories throughout the day than when they believed they had eaten a larger omelet. The findings were to be presented Thursday at a British Psychological Society meeting. “Previous studies have shown that a person’s expectations can have an impact on their subsequent feelings of hunger and fullness and, to a degree, their later calorie consumption,” study leader Steven Brown, of Sheffield Hallam University in the United Kingdom, said in a society news release. “Our work builds on this with the introduction of solid food and measured people’s subsequent consumption four hours later, a period of time more indicative of the gap between breakfast and lunch,” he said. Brown said the researchers also measured the food people ate throughout the rest of the day and found that total intake was lower when participants thought they had eaten the larger breakfast. The researchers also measured levels of ghrelin...

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Daydreaming Behind the Wheel

THURSDAY, Sept. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Many people catch themselves daydreaming, but new research reveals it often happens when they’re behind the wheel of a car. Researchers analyzed the brain activity of volunteers during a driving simulation to determine how often their minds wandered. The investigators also looked for specific brain patterns that would indicate when this daydreaming occurred. During the simulation, the participants were hooked up to a monitoring system that measured electrical activity in their brains. The volunteers completed two 20-minute driving simulations each day for five consecutive days. The simulations weren’t set up to be thrilling or technically challenging. Instead, they mimicked a typical steady commute to and from work along a boring stretch of highway. Between the two sessions, the drivers took a written test to duplicate the mental drain that would occur on a normal workday. During the simulations, a buzzer went off at random intervals. Every time this happened, the participants were instructed to use a tablet computer to record if they had just been daydreaming. If their mind had been wandering right before the buzzer, the drivers were asked to reveal if they were aware of it or not. “We found that during simulated driving, people’s minds wander a lot — some upwards of 70 percent of the time,” said lead researcher Carryl Baldwin, of George Mason University in Fairfax, Va....

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Populism and the fight for the soul of German churches

Berlin, Germany – On a brisk Wednesday evening in early March, a group of people walk towards a small building attached to the Immanuelkirche, an Evangelical church in eastern Berlin’s Prenzlauer Berg neighbourhood. Propped on the wall beside the door is a chalkboard. Scrawled across it and flanked by a pair of fuchsia hearts is a greeting: “Welcome to Meet n’ Eat. Come in!” Meet n’ Eat was started to bring together newly arrived asylum seekers and locals [Sorin Furcoi/Al Jazeera] Inside, children chase each other around. From the cafeteria-style benches comes laughter and the clanking of cutlery against...

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Drug Helped Protect Gay Teen Males From HIV

TUESDAY, Sept. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) — A group of gay and bisexual teenage males safely used a medication that prevents HIV infection, though some failed to follow the drug regimen fully and became infected, researchers report. People at risk for becoming infected with the virus that causes AIDS can dramatically lower their risk of infection by taking the drug Truvada in what is known as the PrEP regimen, but its use is only approved for adults. “Several studies have shown that daily oral PrEP is effective in preventing HIV among people at high risk of becoming infected, but none of them included adolescents under age 18,” explained study author Dr. Bill Kapogiannis, of the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. “Our study suggests that this therapy can safely reduce HIV risk for those under 18.” For the study, researchers led by Sybil Hosek, of the Cook County Health & Hospitals System’s Stroger Hospital in Chicago, recruited 78 gay and bisexual males aged 15 to 17. The average age of the study participants was 16. Almost 30 percent were black, 14 percent were white, and 21 percent were Hispanic. All were HIV-negative but considered at high risk for infection. The participants agreed to take Truvada and received daily doses for 48 weeks. Over that time, 12 developed sexually transmitted diseases and three participants developed HIV infections....

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Could the Zika Virus Help Battle a Deadly Brain Cancer?

TUESDAY, Sept. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) — The Zika virus is well known for causing devastating brain defects in fetuses. But what if scientists could use that ability to do something good? Researchers report that they think they might be able to harness the virus’ attraction to developing brain cells — instead of adult brain cells — as a potential treatment for a deadly type of brain cancer. In lab and animal experiments, scientists from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the University of California, San Diego, showed — that the virus was able to target and destroy stem cells that drive the growth of a deadly and common type of brain tumor, known as a glioblastoma. “Our study is a first step towards the development of safe and effective strains of Zika virus that could become important tools in neuro-oncology and the treatment of glioblastoma,” said study co-leader Michael Diamond, from Washington University School of Medicine, in St. Louis. “However, public health concerns will need to be addressed through pre-clinical testing and evaluations of the strains’ ability to disseminate or revert to more virulent forms,” he said. The research is in the early stages, and experiments that look promising in animal research don’t always turn out as well in humans. The findings were published Sept. 5 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Most people with...

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