Philip Hammond must spend billions extra to end austerity, says think tank the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS).

To maintain per capita spending across government departments which don’t have ring-fenced budgets, he must find an extra £5bn a year by 2023, it adds.

And maintaining spending on unprotected services as a share of national income would require £11bn on top of spending plans set out in the 2018 Budget.

The Treasury says long-term funding decisions will be

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