Students at Philadelphia’s Parkway Center City Middle College were asked to raise their hands if they were affected by gun violence at an April 2018 forum. (Photo: Emma Lee/WHYY)



Research suggests that about half of the county’s children experience at least one traumatic event before the age of 17.

These adverse childhood experiences — known as ACES — include experiencing or witnessing violence; living in poverty; or having a parent go to jail.

Even as school districts across the country become more aware of how these traumas can affect learning, there’s been little concrete policy on the state or federal level for how schools should prepare.

A new study from the nonprofit Research for Action highlights “promising models” nationwide and calls on state lawmakers to

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