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The relationship between population changes and economic growth has been a controversial topic among demographers for many years. A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences today challenges the dominant view that fertility decline and changes in age structure are key drivers of economic growth.

Global environmental change and discussions about the drivers of international have led to renewed interest in and demographic change. The notion of a demographic dividend is defined by the U.N. Population Fund as “the economic growth potential that can result from shifts in a population’s age structure when the share of the working-age population is larger than the

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