In this series of articles, Al Jazeera examines how Twitter in the Middle East has changed since the Arab Spring.
Government talking points are being magnified through thousands of accounts during politically fraught times and silencing people on Twitter is only part of a large-scale effort by governments to stop human rights activists and opponents of the state from being heard.
It was called Diavolo, “devil” in Italian.
In 2015, on an Arabic-language website, three advertisements appeared in the “Twitter marketing services” section.
According to the ads, Diavolo was a program to “automate repetitive tasks such as opening certain web pages or copying and pasting data”.
One ad painted a clearer picture: “This program sends tweets to any number of accounts you have added to