Workers on farms and plantations that supply big UK supermarkets are being subjected to poverty and human rights abuses, according to Oxfam.
A “relentless” drive for retailer profits is fuelling poverty, abuse, and discrimination, the charity said.
Poor conditions were rife on farms that supply supermarkets including Tesco, Sainsbury’s and Morrisons, it added.
But the British Retail Consortium said retailers were “spearheading actions” intended to improve millions of lives.
Oxfam conducted research in India and Brazil, and surveyed workers in five other countries.
Workers on 50 tea plantations in Assam told Oxfam that cholera and typhoid are “prevalent because workers lack access to toilets and safe drinking water”.
Half the workers questioned got ration cards from the government due to low wages, while female employees regularly worked for up to 13