“Infectious diseases are evolving much faster than we are, and much faster than our defences are.

“I think it’s profoundly naive to think we have a handle on them,” says Richard Hatchett, the chief executive of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI).

His organisation was set up after the Ebola epidemic of 2014, when a vaccine was developed, but too late to have any impact on the outbreak.

With more than $750m (£571m) from governments and organisations like the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, it is funding promising new vaccine technologies.

In particular, CEPI wants vaccines that can be produced quickly. “In most circumstances that we have an epidemic, speed becomes really, really important,” Mr Hatchett says.

Traditionally, vaccines are made by taking the original virus or bacteria and

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