Dec. 30 (UPI) — President Donald Trump‘s efforts to impose import tariffs to bolster U.S. manufacturing instead led to retaliatory tariffs that harmed some U.S. industries, according to a new Federal Reserve study.

The report by Aaron Flaaen and Justin Pierce of the Fed’s Divisions of Research and Statistics and Monetary Affairs found that the tariffs enacted in 2018 were associated with a loss of manufacturing jobs and increased production costs.

“While the longer-term effect of the tariffs may differ from those that we estimate here, the results indicate that the tariffs, thus far, have not led to increased activity in the U.S. manufacturing sector,” they wrote.

Some U.S. markets faced less international competition as a result of the tariffs, but

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