Which programming language is best for economic research: Julia, Matlab, Python or R?

While a large number of general-purpose programming languages are used in economic research, we suspect the four most common are Julia, R, Matlab, and Python. When we looked at this last time here on VoxEU (Danielsson and Fan 2018) two years ago, we concluded that R was the best in most cases. With all the developments since then, is R still in the lead?

There is, of course, no single way to answer the question — depending on the project, any of the four could be the best choice.

To narrow the question down, we have three separate criteria in mind, all drawn from our work.

First , one of us has

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