Author: Francesco Sassi, University of Pisa

Russia’s Novatek and China’s Shenergy signed a new gas deal in February 2021, highlighting the primacy of energy ties in China–Russia relations. Under the provisions of the agreement, Novatek will ship around 3 million tonnes a year of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Shenergy’s Shanghai terminals over the next 15 years.

Gas will be sourced from Novatek’s gargantuan Arctic LNG-2 project on the Yamal peninsula, in which the Chinese state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) participate as shareholders. With its first train coming online in 2023, Arctic LNG-2 is a trump card for the Kremlin in gas geopolitics and Russian Arctic development.

As most Arctic LNG-2 production is intended for the

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