Study Design

We used two approaches to estimate the effect of vaccination on the delta variant. First, we used a test-negative case–control design to estimate vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic disease caused by the delta variant, as compared with the alpha variant, over the period that the delta variant has been circulating. This approach has been described in detail elsewhere.10 In brief, we compared vaccination status in persons with symptomatic Covid-19 with vaccination status in persons who reported symptoms but had a negative test. This approach helps to control for biases related to health-seeking behavior, access to testing, and case ascertainment.

For the secondary analysis, the proportion of persons with cases caused by the delta variant relative to the main

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