Kristine BerzinaSenior fellow and head of the Geopolitics Team at the Alliance for Securing Democracy, German Marshall Fund of the United States

Europe learned from the 2006 and 2009 gas cut-offs and put in place a series of regulations that make an outright cut-off unlikely today.

In 2021, a cut-off is not the problem. Instead, Europe is suffering from a gas price spike and a drop in the volumes of gas it receives. Russia has learned that it cannot play the 2006 and 2009 game again. But Moscow still has numerous tools it can use to put pressure on Europe and make itself richer.

In 2021, as in 2009, EU member states need to ask themselves how the EU can use Russian gas without falling prey

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